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Grupo La Libreta de Lola

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Learn and apply SystemC TLM 2.0 with TLM 2.0 from the ground up pdf 11

For the present summer the temperature is +2.5C at the South Pole and around 0C in the region of the group of principal instruments used for the SCSC. This paper presents a change of spectral radiance from the South Pole Station thermal infrared radiometer. The radiance has been measured during two seasons (Winter 2000/2001 and Summer 2001) as a reference for the following measurements. The comparison between the two periods shows that the near-infrared (NIR) radiance decreases of about one order of magnitude. The temperature has increased by 0.2C in that same time span. For most of the wavelengths, the radiance is bigger after winter, whereas the temperature is lower. The trend is not uniform, i.e., in some wavelengths the weather conditions are similar, whereas in other wavelengths the temperature increase is larger. This paper also presents a change of apparent radiance at night caused by the volcanic emission of the volcanic mountain Thule. The comparison between the two periods shows that the UV radiance has been strongly reduced at the time of the summer and a new emission peak appears in the blue part of the spectrum with a maximum at 405 nm. The findings are useful for the SCSC to be able to calibrate the various sensors. They are also useful for the SCSC to prepare for instrument commissioning on the upcoming station for the next winter, in order to be able to estimate the correction factors before the coming winter in which the sensors are expected to be completely unusable. The data presented here are supported by measurements with the South Pole Atmospheric sounding Station, the South Pole Weather Station, and the pressure balloon. tlm 2.0 from the ground up pdf 11 The preceding chapter explains the design, construction, and calibration of the South Pole Atmospheric Archive, which contains over 30 years of atmospheric data taken over the South Pole, including wind velocity, velocity variance, temperature, pressure, and humidity. The archive allows access to a wide range of meteorological parameters, including one-minute values of pressure and temperature, humidity, and snow depth every 3 hours, and full-sky temperature every hour. Furthermore, the archive can be used to produce meaningful atmospheric variability statistics, such as cloud occurrence and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses (Davies et al., 2001 ). The archive output, which is provided to the user as an ASCII file, is 5D by 5D grid of physical variables, e.g., the one-minute wind speed in kilometers per hour, instantaneous temperature, dew point temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. As explained in the chapter, the various representations of atmospheric variables in the archive are not necessarily the same as the observed variables, which vary with time and location. The archive is therefore calibrated as described in this chapter in order to represent atmospheric variables in a consistent manner. The calibration includes (a) the conversion of one-minute values of atmospheric variables to rates of change in the following variables: wind speed, wind direction, acceleration in the x- (east-west) and y- (north-south) directions; temperature, dew point temperature, and pressure; and (b) removal of the effect of sun azimuth on the pressure and dew point temperature. The calibration requires use of a full-sky weather station, a number of wind tunnels, and a number of pressure balloons to measure pressure, dew point temperature, and relative humidity directly at the South Pole. One or more wind tunnels and a weather station are needed at the South Pole as calibration stations in order to measure all of the rates of change in pressure, dew point temperature, and relative humidity necessary to derive the calibration for the SCSC.

tlm 2.0 from the ground up pdf 11

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